Value chain

The metal flow plates Cell Impact manufactures are part of a value chain that extends from raw material production to final use in many sectors including the automotive and aviation industries as well as marine and stationary applications.

The value chain is complex and involves several critical steps before flow plates can be used by manufacturers of fuel cells and electrolyzers to enable efficient and sustainable alternatives to fossil fuels as well as production of green hydrogen using electricity from renewable energy sources.

The diagram below is a simplified illustration of the current and potential value chain of Cell Impact's flow plates.

Extraction of raw materials

Extraction of raw materialsCell Impact manufactures metal flow plates using a process that relies on extracting raw materials such as iron, zinc, nickel, chrome, molybdenum and titanium. These raw materials are extracted from mines around the world but can also be derived from recycled scrap, providing a more circular flow. Virgin production of metals involves prospecting and mining to extract raw materials from the Earth’s crust. The raw materials come from regions and suppliers without significant ESG issues.

Machining and refinement

Machining and refinement

The raw materials undergo several processing steps to purify and refine the materials before the extracted raw material can be metallurgically processed through melting, alloying and forming the desired metal as rolled sheet metal. Metal refining is a critical step in the process to remove impurities and achieve a product of consistent and high quality. This process is highly energy-intensive.

Production of flow plates

Production of flow plates

Cell Impact has developed Cell Impact Forming, a unique, patented forming method that enables rapid and cost-effective forming of flow plates. The technology is based on a high-kinetic process where two tools meet at a high and precisely controlled speed, allowing for scalable production of high-quality flow plates. The process is built on the metal remaining room-tempered and dry both before and after processing. This results in lower energy consumption compared with conventional pressing processes. Moreover, Cell Impact can manufacture flow plates with minimal water consumption and without lubricants. Consequently, the manufacturing process has minimal climate and environmental impact. The types of flow plates manufactured by Cell Impact include PEM (Proton Exchange Membrane) plates and plates for SOFC (Solid Oxide Fuel Cells).


ElectrolyzersWith electrolysis, it is possible to produce hydrogen through a process where electricity passes through a conductive solution, producing oxygen and hydrogen at the anode and cathode, respectively. Electrolyzers are crucial for producing green hydrogen, that is, hydrogen generated using renewable energy such as wind or solar power. There is significant potential for flow plates for electrolyzers in the green transition to fossil-free energy.

Fuel cells

Fuel cellsAnother application of flow plates is in manufacturing fuel cells. In this process, bipolar PEM plates facilitate electrochemical reactions that convert hydrogen and oxygen into water and electricity. The process produces significantly cleaner energy compared with using fossil fuels, making hydrogen and fuel cell technology an effective solution to reduce climate impacts and global warming. The fuel cells are assembled into what are known as fuel cell stacks. These stacks are supplied to manufacturers in various industries with high demands for low environmental impact as well as quiet, safe and emission-free energy production.


The aviation industry is a significant source of climate-impacting emissions. Before the pandemic, aviation accounted for 2.5 percent of global CO2 emissions and after several years with lower emissions, emissions from aviation have now returned to this level. Hydrogen-powered aviation is expected to grow in the coming years, initially for smaller aircraft and shorter distances and then over time for larger planes and longer flights.

Marine applications

The marine industry has a significant impact due to extensive emissions of climate-impacting substances. In terms of marine transport, the most interesting use of hydrogen-fueled vessels is along coastal routes. The potential to reduce climate-impacting emissions using fuel cell technology is substantial.


There is significant potential to increase the use of fuel cell technology as a backup for energy production or in areas where using off-grid solutions is challenging. The market where fuel cell generators could be an alternative to diesel power is expected to grow by 25 percent per year between 2023 and 2030.

Material handling

This segment includes various types of construction machinery, agricultural equipment and forklifts as well as trains. The use of trains run on fuel cells is expected to increase by 28 percent annually between 2026 and 2035.


A significant number of automotive industry participants have made great progress in developing fuel cell engines for cars and heavy vehicles. Some are developing their own fuel cell stacks, while others buy them from suppliers The potential in the sector is significant, and there is a much to leverage – an electric fuel cell car, for example, requires 300 to 500 flow plates, which means that even a limited number of cars that run on fuel cells will lead to a very high demand for flow plates.